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Museum of Anthropology Squirt Cave (45WW25)

Ground Stone

Nine ground stone artifacts were recovered, including a pestle, a maul, a net weight, three abrading stones, and 1 basalt artifact which was both flaked and ground and showed traces of hematite on its surface.

 

Ground Stone artifacts from Squirt Cave (45WW25) a digging stick handle on the left, and a pestle on the right (source: Endacott 1992:49, Figure 11; illustration by Sarah Moore).
Ground Stone artifacts from Squirt Cave (45WW25) a) digging stick handle; b) pestle (source: Endacott 1992:49, Figure 11; illustration by Sarah Moore).

 Ground Stone from Squirt Cave (45WW25): a maul on the left and a net weight on the right (source: Endacott 1992:52, Figure 12; illustration by Sarah Moore).
Ground Stone from Squirt Cave (45WW25): a) maul; b) net weight (source: Endacott 1992:52, Figure 12; illustration by Sarah Moore).

Flaked Stone

Ninety-one flaked stone artifacts were recovered.

  • 21 projectile points and/or projectile point performs. Nineteen are chert or other cryptocystalline stone; one is basalt and one is petrified wood. Eight of the projectile points are arrow points which were probably made and used in the Harder Phase; two are dart points, which would place them in the earlier Tucannon Phase (see Leonhardy and Rice 1970).
  • 12 knives. One is hafted using Dog Bane or Indian Hemp (Apocynum cannabinum).
  • 4 bifaces. Three are chert and one is slate.
  • 9 endscrapers
  • 1 drill
  • 2 basalt hammerstones. One is a modified cobble, the other is flaked
  • 6 incising tools. Five are chert, one is petrified wood
  • 1 unifacial basalt chopper
  • 7 cores
  • 15 retouched flakes which represent expedient tools
  • 12 utilized flakes
  • 2 tools of unknown function, one of basalt with hematite on one edge, the other of petrified wood

Fifty-four pieces of debitage were recovered; about 100 additional pieces of debitage are present in the unanalyzed level bags. This represents a relatively small amount of debitage and suggests that Squirt Cave was not a tool production site. Debitage produced was from the maintenance, sharpening, and reworking of tools. With the exception of seven obsidian artifacts, all ground and flaked stone artifacts are made from local materials: chert, basalt, petrified wood, metamorphic rock, quartzite, slate, argillite, and sandstone. Four additional pieces of obsidian are present in the unanalyzed level bags: one small flake core, one secondary reduction flake, and two unworked nodules. Neither Combes nor Endacott submitted obsidian for source analysis.

Projectile Points from Squirt Cave (45WW25): a through e are small triangular points with side notches and concave bases; f through h are small triangular points with slightly concave bases and asymmetrical shoulders; i and j are large, stemmed, triangular points with prominent shoulders, a medial ridge, and a straight base;k and l are small, weakly stemmed, triangular points with prominent shoulders, contracting stems, medial ridges and straight bases (source: Endacott 1992:57-58, Figure 13; illustration by Sarah Moore).
Projectile Points from Squirt Cave (45WW25): a-e) small triangular points with side notches and concave bases; f-h) small triangular points with slightly concave bases and asymmetrical shoulders; i and j) large, stemmed, triangular points with prominent shoulders, a medial ridge, and a straight base; k and l) small, weakly stemmed, triangular points with prominent shoulders, contracting stems, medial ridges and straight bases (source: Endacott 1992:57-58, Figure 13; illustration by Sarah Moore).

 

Knives from Squirt Cave (45WW25): a through c are bifacially flaked, pentagonal knives with a straight base; d is a unifacially flaked, lanceolate; e and f are bifacially flaked, triangular, and asymmetrical (source: Endacott 1992:63-65, Figure 14; illustration by Sarah Moore).
Knives from Squirt Cave (45WW25): a-c) bifacially flaked, pentagonal knives with a straight base; d) unifacially flaked, lanceolate; e and f) bifacially flaked, triangular, and asymmetrical (source: Endacott 1992:63-65, Figure 14; illustration by Sarah Moore).

 Hafted Knife from Squirt Cave (45WW25) (source: Endacott 1992:66, Figure 15; illustration by Sarah Moore). The haft is wood and the knife is attached with cord made from plant material
Hafted Knife from Squirt Cave (45WW25) (source: Endacott 1992:66, Figure 15; illustration by Sarah Moore).

Drill and end scrapers from Squirt Cave (45WW25): a is a drill; b and c are bifacially flaked triangular end scrapers; d and e are unifacially flaked end scrapers; f through h are unifacially flaked, shouldered end scrapers (source: Endacott 1992: 69-71; Figure 16; illustration by Sarah Moore).
Drill and end scrapers from Squirt Cave (45WW25): a) drill; b and c) bifacially flaked triangular end scrapers; d and e) unifacially flaked end scrapers; f-h) unifacially flaked, shouldered end scrapers (source: Endacott 1992: 69-71; Figure 16; illustration by Sarah Moore).

Flaked stone tools from Squirt Cave (45WW25): a is a core; b is a cobble chopper (source: Endacott 1992:74, Figure 17; illustration by Sarah Moore).
Flaked stone tools from Squirt Cave (45WW25): a) core; b) cobble chopper (source: Endacott 1992:74, Figure 17; illustration by Sarah Moore).