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Methodology

To understand the cultural chronology at Granite Point, Leonhardy (1970) designated cultural components by first correlating artifact assemblages with the geological strata they were found in and then comparing the content of each of the stratigraphic assemblages. Leonhardy used the distribution of artifact category commonalities between stratigraphic assemblages to determine if they consisted of different sets or could be collapsed into a single set. This was done by comparing the size of the proportion of the commonalty between sets to the size of the proportion of uniqueness. If either assemblage had a larger proportion of commonality with another set than the proportion of their uniqueness then the two assemblages were combined into a single unit. The commonality between components was also tested to confirm their distinctness. For this analysis artifact categories were not weighted by comparative value and it was assumed that classification of artifacts did not bias the comparison. Some artifact categories, such as artifacts designated “unclassified” and cut bone, were removed for this analysis. Leonhardy asserted that this methodology not only worked well with small samples and limited inventory, but could also be used in cross-site comparisons.

ComponentArtifact countAssemblageStratumFeaturesAge  (estimated)
1408C41-9,000-10,000 B.P.
2545C38b, 10b8,000-6,7000 years ago
B44
3 (provisional)46C211b5,000-7,000 B.P.
4248A5-65, 62,500-5,000 B.P.
B33
B22
5 (provisional)64A3a3a1,500-2,500 years ago
A3c3c
B1c1c
Unassigned Assemblagestoo small for analytic valueA11within the past 1,000 years
B1a1a
C1b1b

*Assemblage C1a was believed to be a mixture of various ages and was eliminated from the sample

Component Categories

*Please refer to Leonhardy 1970 for detailed descriptions of individual component categories

GroupDescription
Projectile PointsAll chipped stone projectile points types, unfinished points, point fragments and point preforms
Knife/BifaceKnives, knife-like implements, biface fragments and preforms
ScrapersEnd, tabular end, side, cobble, cobble spall, stemmed and denticulate scrapers
Gravers/PerforatorsDrills, perforators, burin, burin spalls, gravers and graver-like implements
CoresCores, core fragments and cobble spall cores
Ground StonePounding stones, atlatl spurs?, edge-ground cobbles, pestles, notched sinkers,
ChoppersCobble, cobble spall, uniface, and biface choppers
FlakesUtilized flakes, retouched flakes, flaked cobbles, cobble spalls, denticulate cobble implements, and serrated cobble spalls
Unclassifiable Chipped StoneFragments of unclassifiable chipped stone implements and artifacts , unclassified cobble artifacts
Problematic PointProblematic point implements
Problematic FlakeProblematic shaped flake
Modified BoneWorked or cut bone and antler, awls, awl-like implements, needles, wedges, hammers, digging sticks, problematic bone implements, modified tooth, barbed bone projectile point, beads
ShellBeads

Component 1

GroupCategoryArtifact CountMaterial
Projectile Points1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, 1-7, 1-8, 1-9, 1-10, 1-11, 1-1229Cryptocrystalline silica (22), basalt (7)
Knife/Biface1-13, 1-14, 1-15, 1-16, 1-26, 1-2949Cryptocrystalline silica (35), basalt (13), quartzite (1)
Scrapers1-18, 1-19, 1-20, 1-21, 1-2211Cryptocrystalline silica (8), basalt (3)
Gravers/Perforators1-23, 1-24, 1-25, 1-2713Cryptocrystalline silica
Cores1-30, 1-454Cryptocrystalline silica, quartzite (1), unidentified metamorphic rock (2)
Ground Stone1-441Basalt
Choppers1-40, 1-41, 1-42, 1-439Basalt (4), quartzite (2), unidentified metamorphic rock (3)
Flakes1-17, 1-32, 1-33, 1-34, 1-35, 1-36, 1-37, 1-38, 1-39, 1-51202Cryptocrystalline silica (176), basalt (26)
Unclassifiable Chipped Stone1-49, 1-5975Cryptocrystalline silica (69), basalt (6)
Problematic Point1-281Cryptocrystalline silica
Problematic Flake---
Modified Bone1-46, 1-47, 1-4810Bone (9), Antler (1)
Shell---

Associated Faunal Remains: elk, beaver, and river mussels

Component 1: Projectile points (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 30)
Component 1: Projectile points (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 30)

a-b. Category 1-1, uniface lanceolate; c-d. Category 1-2, biface lanceolate; e-g. Category 1-3, lanceolate with indented base; h-i. Category 1-4, contracting stem (one with graver tip); j-p. Category 1-5, shouldered and indented (specimens o and p are reworked); q. Category 1-7, expanding stem; r. Category 1-8, contracting stem; s. Category 1-9, straight stemmed; t. Category 1-6, weakly shouldered; u. Category 1-10, asymmetrical contracting stem; v. Category 1-11, fragment; w-x. Category 1-12, preforms.

 

Component 1: Knives and knife-like implements (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 31)
Component 1: Knives and knife-like implements (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 31)

a-d. Category 1-13, lanceolate; e-f. Category 1-14, elongated lanceolate; g-h. Category 1-15, small lanceolate; i-k. Category 1-16, oval knife-like.

 

Component 1: Scrapers and burins (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 32)
Component 1: Scrapers and burins (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 32)

a-d. Category 1-18, end scrapers; e-f. Category 1-19, denticulate scrapers; g. Category 1-20, stemmed scraper; h. Category 1-18, end scraper with utilized lateral edges; i-l. Category 1-24, burins.

 

Component 1: Miscellaneous implements (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 33)
Component 1: Miscellaneous implements (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 33)

a-b. Category 1-24, burins; c-e. Category 1-25, burin spalls; f-h. Category 1-23, drills or perforators; i. Category 1-27, graver; j-q. Category 1-32, prismatic blades, utilized flakes with straight or convex knife-like edges; r-s. Category 46, atlatl spurs; t. Category 1-48, fragment of worked bone; u. Category 1-47, tip of an awl-like implement.

 

Component 1: Utilized flakes (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 34)
Component 1: Utilized flakes (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 34)

a-g. Category 1-32, with straight or convex knife-like edges; h-i. Category 1-33, with concave knife-like edges; j-n. Category 1-34, with steep, convex scraper-like edges.

 

Component 1: Utilized flakes (Leonhard 1970, Figure 35)
Component 1: Utilized flakes (Leonhard 1970, Figure 35)

a-b. Category 1-36, with steep, concave scraper-like edges, Group 1; c-d. Category 1-37, with steep, concave scraper-like edges, Group 2; e-g. Category 1-38, with steep, concave scraper-like edges, Group 3; h-i. Category 1-39, serrated flakes; j-o. Prismatic blades with no definite indications of use.

 

Component 1: Cobble and cobble-spall implements (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 36)
Component 1: Cobble and cobble-spall implements (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 36)

a. Category 1-21, cobble scraper; b-c. Category 1-26, biface fragments; d. Category 1-17, utilized cobble spall; e. Category 1-42, cobble chopper, Group 2; f. Category 1-43, cobble chopper, Group 3; g. Category 1-41, cobble chopper, Group 1; h. Category 1-40, cobble spall chopper; i. Category 1-22, cobble spall scraper.

Component 2

GroupCategoryArtifact CountMaterial
Projectile Points2-1, 2-2, 2-390Cryptocrystalline silica (61), basalt (29)
Knife/Biface2-4, 2-5, 2-6, 2-2957Cryptocrystalline silica (28), basalt (28), quartzite (1)
Scrapers2-7, 2-8, 2-9, 2-19, 2-20, 2-21, 2-2258Cryptocrystalline silica (18), basalt (27), quartzite (3), unidentified rock (1)
Gravers/Perforators2-154Cryptocrystalline silica (2), basalt (2)
Cores2-301Quartzite (1)
Ground Stone2-23, 2-24, 2-25, 2-3127Cryptocrystalline silica (4), basalt (2), quartzite (2), unidentified igneous rock (19)
Choppers2-26, 2-275Basalt (4), unidentified igneous rock (1)
Flakes2-10, 2-11, 2-12, 2-13, 2-14, 2-18, 2-28190Cryptocrystalline silica (148), basalt (38), unidentified igneous rock (4)
Unclassifiable Chipped Stone2-40, 2-41, 2-4276Cryptocrystalline silica (55), basalt (20), obsidian (1)
Problematic Point2-162Cryptocrystalline silica (2)
Problematic Flake2-171Cryptocrystalline silica (1)
Modified Bone2-32, 2-33, 2-34, 2-35, 2-36, 2-37, 2-38, 2-43, 2-4434Bone (27), antler (6), tooth (1)
Shell2-393Olivella biplicata  (3)

Associated Faunal Remains: deer, elk, rabbit, bobcat, river mussel, large salmonid (either salmon or steelhead), and abundant remains of rodents and gastropods

 

Component 2: Projectile points (Leonhardy 1970 Figure 37)
Component 2: Projectile points (Leonhardy 1970 Figure 37)

a-u. Category 2-1, lanceolate. Specimens a and u are uniface, specimens o-u are serrated; v-w. Category 2-2, non-lanceolate fragments

 

Component 2: Knives (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 38)
Component 2: Knives (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 38)

a-e. Category 2-4, knives, Group 1; f-l. Category 2-5, knives, Group 2.

 

Component 2: Scrapers (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 39)
Component 2: Scrapers (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 39)

a. Category 2-7, side scraper; b-n. Category 2-8, tabular end scrapers; o-p. Category 2-9, denticulate scrapers.

 

Component 2: Utilized flakes (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 40)
Component 2: Utilized flakes (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 40)

a-h. Category 2-10, with straight or convex knife-like edges; i. Category 2-11, with concave knife-like edges; j-n. Category 2-12, with steep, scraper-like edges, Group 1; o-s. Category 2-14, with concave, scraper-like edges.

 

[Figures 41 and 42 unavailable]

 

Component 2: Cobble and cobble spall implements (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 43)
Component 2: Cobble and cobble spall implements (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 43)

a-d. Category 2-21, cobble scrapers, Group 3 (cobble spall scrapers); e. Category 2-24, pounding stone, Group 1; f. Category 2-25, pounding stone, Group 2; g-i. Category 2-28, denticulate cobble implements; j. Category 2-22, cobble scraper Group 4.

 

Component 2: Miscellaneous implements (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 44)
Component 2: Miscellaneous implements (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 44)

a-b. Category 2-29, knife-like biface; c-d. Category 2-42, examples of unclassified cobble artifacts; e. Category 2-32, possible antler digging stick tip.

 

Component 3 (Provisional)

GroupCategoryArtifact CountMaterial
Projectile Points3-1, 3-2, 3-313Cryptocrystalline silica (4), basalt (9)
Knife/Biface3-4, 3-5, 3-76Cryptocrystalline silica (1), basalt (5)
Scrapers3-6, 3-10, 3-115Cryptocrystalline silica (2), basalt (3)
Gravers/Perforators3-81Basalt (1)
Cores---
Ground Stone3-121Unidentified igneous rock (1)
Choppers---
Flakes3-9, 3-1316Cryptocrystalline silica (13), basalt (1), quartzite (1), unidentified igneous rock (1)
Unclassifiable Chipped Stone3-154Cryptocrystalline silica (4)
Problematic Point---
Problematic Flake---
Modified Bone3-141Antler (1)
Shell---

Associated Faunal Remains: n/a

 

Component 3 (Provisional): Projectile points, knives, scrapers, biface, graver (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 45)
Component 3 (Provisional): Projectile points, knives, scrapers, biface, graver (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 45)

a-b. Category 3-1, lanceolate projectile points; c-d. Category 3-3, unfinished projectile points; e-g. Category 3-2, side-notched projectile points; h-j. Category 3-4, small lanceolate knives; k-l. Category 3-5, large lanceolate knives; m-n. Category 3-6, end scrapers; o. Category 3-7, knife-like biface; p. Category 3-8, graver.

Component 4

GroupCategoryArtifact CountMaterial
Projectile Points4-1, 4-2, 4-3, 4-4, 4-5, 4-6, 4-7, 4-8, 4-9, 4-10, 4-11, 4-12, 4-1366Cryptocrystalline silica (40), basalt (18), obsidian (8)
Knife/Biface4-252Cryptocrystalline silica (2)
Scrapers4-14, 4-15, 4-16, 4-17 4-18, 4-19, 4-27, 4-3324Cryptocrystalline silica (20), basalt (2), quartzite (1), unidentified igneous rock (1)
Gravers/Perforators4-203Cryptocrystalline silica (3)
Cores---
Ground Stone4-30, 4-31, 4-32, 4-35, 4-36, 4-3712Basalt (10), unidentified igneous rock (2)
Choppers4-29, 4-344Basalt (4)
Flakes4-21, 4-22, 4-23, 4-24, 4-26, 4-2881Cryptocrystalline silica (52), basalt (26), quartzite (2), unidentified igneous rock (1)
Unclassifiable Chipped Stone4-47, 4-4835Cryptocrystalline silica (21), basalt (4), materials unspecified (10)
Problematic Point---
Problematic Flake---
Modified Bone4-38, 4-39, 4-40, 4-41, 4-42, 4-43, 4-44, 4-45, 4-4621Bone (16), antler (2), materials unspecified (3)
Shell---

Associated Faunal Remains: deer, elk, antelope, coyote, rabbit, and numerous remains of fish, shellfish, and rodents. Whether the fish remains include the large salmonids was not established.

 

Component 4: Projectile points (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 46)
Component 4: Projectile points (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 46)

a-e. Category 4-1, shouldered, stemmed, Group 1; f-m. Category 4-2, shouldered, stemmed, Group 2; n-y. Category 4-3, side-to-corner notched; z-aa. Category 4-4, side-notched; bb. Category 4-5, concave base; cc. Category 4-6, asymmetrical side-notched; dd. Category 4-7, lanceolate; ee. Category 4-9, indented base lanceolate; ff-gg. Category 4-11, unmodified triangular, or preforms; hh. Category 4-42, possible barbed bone projectile point.

 

[Figure 47 is unavailable]

 

Component 4: Cobble implements (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 48)
Component 4: Cobble implements (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 48)

a. Category 4-27, cobble spall scraper; b, e. Category 4-28, serrated cobble spalls; c, f. Category 4-26, utilized cobble spalls; d. Category 4-33, cobble scraper; g. Category 4-30, pounding stone, Group 1; h. Category 4-36, notched pebble sinker.

 

Component 4: Awls, preforms, and knives (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 49)
Component 4: Awls, preforms, and knives (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 49)

a. Category 4-40, splinter awl; b-e. Category 4-39, split bone awls; f-g. Category 4-25, preforms; h. Category 4-13, lanceolate knife or large projectile point; i. Category 4-14, knife or large projectile point.

Component 5 (Provisional)

GroupCategoryArtifact CountMaterial
Projectile Points5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 5-4, 5-5, 5-6, 5-7, 5-8, 5-9, 5-1020Cryptocrystalline silica (16), basalt (3), slate (1)
Knife/Biface5-131Cryptocrystalline silica
Scrapers5-11, 5-12, 5-177Cryptocrystalline silica (5), basalt (1), quartzite (1)
Gravers/Perforators5-141Cryptocrystalline silica
Cores---
Ground Stone5-18, 5-19, 5-204Basalt (2), quartzite (1), unidentified igneous rock (1)
Choppers---
Flakes5-1522Cryptocrystalline silica (21), basalt (1)
Unclassifiable Chipped Stone5-166Cryptocrystalline silica
Problematic Point---
Problematic Flake---
Modified Bone5-21, 5-223Bone (3)
Shell---

Associated Faunal Remains: deer, elk, bison (Bison bison) in addition to smaller mammals, river mussels, and unidentified fish.

 

Component 5 (Provisional): Projectile points, end scrapers, perforators (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 50)
Component 5 (Provisional): Projectile points, end scrapers, perforators (Leonhardy 1970, Figure 50)

a-e. Category 5-1, basal-notched projectile points; f-h. Category 5-4, side-to-corner-notched projectile points; i. Category 5-6, asymmetrical projectile point; j. Category 5-7, asymmetical side-indented projectile point; k. Category 5-3, shouldered, stemmed projectile point; l. Category 5-8, side-indented projectile point; m-n. Category 5-11, end scrapers, Group 1; o. Category 5-12, end scraper, Group 2; p. Category 5-14, perforator; q-r. Projectile points from Assemblage A1; s-w. Projectile points from Assemblages C1b.

Unassigned Assemblages

GroupArtifact CountArtifact CountArtifact Count
A1B1aC1b
Projectile Points9412
Knife/Biface
Scrapers11
Gravers/Perforators
Cores
Ground Stone622
Choppers
Flakes574
Unclassifiable Chipped Stone5
Problematic Point
Problematic Flake
Modified Bone
Shell
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